Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar-Biography, thoughts, and compositions
BIOGRAPHY OF Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
The full name of B.R. Ambedkar is “Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar”, the caretaker of Dalits, struggling for social equality, social reformer and the principal creator of the Indian Constitution, was born on 14 April 1891 in Mhow Cantonment near Indore in Madhya Pradesh. His childhood name was Bhima Sakpal. After passing high school, he got higher education with the help of Maharaja of Baroda and got admission in Columbia University on Gaikwad scholarship and Ph.D. from Columbia University itself. Assumed the title of He was the first untouchable of India who went abroad to study.
Important facts about Ambedkar
Ambedkar published “Mooknayak” (weekly) in 1920 and Bahishkrit Bharat (monthly) in 1927.
In August 1936, he founded the “Independent Labor Party” which was related to the problems of the Dalit class, workers and peasants.
This institution was renamed the All India Scheduled Castes Association in 1942.
Ambedkar participated as the representative of the Scheduled Castes in the three Round Table Conferences organized by the British.
Ambedkar was appointed the first Law Minister in the Union Cabinet of Independent India. On 5 February 1951, Ambedkar introduced the “Hindu Code Bill” in Parliament, failing which he resigned from the cabinet.
In 1955, he founded the Indian Council of Buddhism and embraced Buddhism with 5 lakh persons in Nagpur. The most popular statement of him that “I was born in Hinduism but I will die in Buddhism”.
He died in 1956.
Major compositions of Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Who are the Shudra?
Annihilation of caste
Pakistan or Partition to India
State and minorities
Thus spoke Ambedkar
Social views of Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
In the social field, Ambedkar can be considered a great social reformer. He also protested against the injustice being done against Dalits backward untouchables on the theoretical and practical level. Through the movements, he did the important work of awakening the soul and consciousness in the exploited class. He opposed the prevailing varna system and considered the rule of the four varna system completely unscientific, impractical, unjust and dignified.
According to Ambedkar, untouchability has its roots in the varna system. Therefore, the prevention of untouchability is considered very essential for the upliftment of society.
Ambedkar was also strongly opposed to the caste system and said that there is no place for social and economic development in the caste system and the caste system is responsible for many maladies and injustice of Hindu society.
Bhimrao Ambedkar supported the development of Dalits for inter-caste marriages, education of Dalits, struggle and organization, their adequate representation in administrative executive and state services.
He was also a supporter of women’s dignity. Even Bhimrao Ambedkar did not consider scheduled conversion. They attacked the Brahminical system and protested on the basis of giving the lower place to the Shudras.
Origin of Shudras
He gave ideas in his creation – “Shudra Who Was”. Ambedkar considered the Shudras not a separate Varna but a part of the Kshatriya Varna. According to him, the Shudras were not non-Aryan but were Kshatriyas and they fought with Brahmins. After that, the Brahmins stopped their Upanayana rites.
Salvation of untouchables
Ambedkar, in his work “Any-Hilarion of Cost”, has shown the measures for the upliftment of the depressed classes. They said that the saints / social reformers of the upper castes sympathize with the problems of the depressed classes, but have not been able to make any tangible contribution. He has also said that the Dalit class can be uplifted by self-improvement, that is, the so-called untouchables can only provide leadership to the untouchables. In this context, Bhimrao Ambedkar stressed the need for Dalits to be organized, aware and educated by giving them drinking, drinking, and focusing on education to improve their condition.
Ambedkar said that there is no lack of merit among Dalits. By getting general and technical education, they can go to the cities and adopt new businesses, so that they can be free to some extent from the prejudice associated with the traditional situation.
He emphasized on the adequate representation of Dalits in the governance and institutions because this would give Dalits an opportunity to redress grievances. Ambedkar suggested the conversion of Dalits to Buddhism and considered the industrialization of India as an effective solution for the salvation of Dalits.
Gandhi VS Ambedkar
At a practical level, Bhimrao Ambedkar launched a movement of equality between upper-caste Hindus and lower castes within Hinduism and for this he took the help of a joint feast and worship festival. Their idea is different from Gandhi in terms of the salvation of Dalits. Where Gandhiji believed that untouchability could be eradicated by the change of heart of the Savarnas, that is, Mahatma Gandhi was supportive of ending the caste system, whereas he had no opposition to the varna system. At the same time, Ambedkar believed that the roots of untouchability lie in the Varna system, so to end untouchability, the end of the Varna system is necessary because there is no scope for improvement in the Varna system. It is only appropriate to destroy it completely. Therefore, the salvation of the Dalits will happen only when the protection of rights, grievance redressal system and political power also comes into their hands.
Ambedkar’s views on Panchayati Raj were different from Gandhiji. Gandhiji believed that there would be decentralization of power through Panchayati Raj, which would give the village complete autonomy and establish a clean administration. Whereas Ambedkar believed that centralization of power rather than decentralization is necessary for the unity and integrity of the country. He said that by making the village a unit of governance, the existence of the person will be suppressed and he will only think of local interest and the village will develop as a base of communalism. Therefore, the revival of “village administration” will prove disastrous.
Ambedkar, looking at the possibilities of Dalit revival in Hinduism, tarnished the ground of reality and advised his followers to convert to Buddhism and in the last days, he himself adopted Buddhism.
In the political arena, Bhimrao Ambedkar was in favor of the right and freedom of the individual. He was in favor of the liberal form of the state. He was a supporter of the liberal nature of the state and the system of parliamentary governance and was in favor of the welfare state. Ambedkar believed in the separation of powers of governance and considered democracy as the best governance.
Views on democracy
According to Bhimrao Ambedkar, democracy is not only a system of governance but also a way for people to live together. According to them, public decisions are taken in democracy through independent discussion. According to Dr. Ambedkar, economic and social democracy is a precondition for the success of political democracy. According to them, independent governance and democracy are real when the principle of limited government is applicable. In this context, he supported constitutional democracy. He has also given some characteristics of democracy in which –
Democracy should be elected, not hereditary.
The elected must gain the trust and renewal of the public.
In democracy, no person can claim to be omniscient.
Establishment of social, economic democracy is necessary before political democracy.
Dr. Ambedkar supported the heavy industries and in the context of ending the economic exploitation, handed over the management of the original industries to the state. He was a supporter of the mixed economy. It was proposed that agriculture should become the industry of the state, that is, by giving compensation to the agricultural owners, tenants, etc., the state should acquire land and collectively cultivate it. Thus Bhimrao supported cooperative agriculture.